10 Steps to the GMAT | Sentence Correction

Previous Article >> GMAT 2019 Study Guide | Strategy

Sentence Correction

Sentence correction questions make up about one-third of the Verbal section of the GMAT. They are designed to test you on grammar and your ability to structure a sentence with the best word choices.

You will be given a sentence in which a portion will be underlined followed by five choices of different ways to write the underlined portion of the sentence. You must choose the correct one.

The first choice always repeats the underlined portion, so you can skip this one if you’ve already read the sentence (which you should do first). The rest of the choices are different.

According to Crash Course for the GMAT 4th Edition, “Some incorrect answer choices repeat a grammatical error in the original sentence, rewriting another part of the sentence that didn’t originally contain an error. Others fix the error of the original sentence but introduce a new error.”

The following approach will help spot the incorrect answer choices.

The Three-Step Approach

Step 1: Read the Question and Identify the Error

Step 2: Eliminate All Answer Choices Containing That Error

Step 3: Look for Grammar Errors in the Remaining Answer Choices and Eliminate Them

*Do not forget to consider that the original sentence may not contain an error at all.

Six Commonly Tested Errors

The following will outline how to spot and fix six commonly tested errors. (Excerpt from Crash Course for GMAT 4th Edition; for more in-depth examples, please buy the book here.)

Misplaced Modifier

Rule: A descriptive word or phrase should be placed immediately before or after the thing it modifies.

How to spot it: Two phrases are separated by a comma and one or both of them are underlined.

How to fix it: Choose an answer choice that puts the modifying phrase and the object it’s modifying right next to each other (separated by a comma).

Pronouns

Rule: A pronoun must clearly refer to a noun, and must agree with that noun in gender and number.

How to spot it: A pronoun is in the underlined portion of the sentence.

How to fix it: Identify the pronoun and the noun it replaces. Change the pronoun so that it agrees with the noun.

Subject/Verb Agreement

Rule: A verb must agree in number with its subject.

How to spot it: Typically, in a sentence with a subject/verb error, GMAC places the subject and verb as far away from each other as possible.

How to fix it: Identify the subject and verb of the sentence or phrase, and make sure they agree in number.

Parallel Construction

Rule: Word, phrases, and clauses that are either in a list or being compared must all contain the same parts of speech and must look the same.

How to spot it: If the sentence contains a list or comparison, you should probably look for a parallel construction error.

How to fix it: Find the list or comparison in the nonunderlined portion of the sentence. Change the nonmatching member of the list or comparison so that it matches the other numbers.

Verb Tense

Rule:

  • Use the: When an action started in the past and…

    • Simple Past: has ceased to occur

    • Present Perfect: Continues to the present

    • Past Perfect: Was completed before some other past action began.

How to spot it: The sentence contains an action, or it contains a series of actions occurring at different times.

How to fix it: Identify the sequence of events in the sentence. Use the table above to determine the correct verb tense.

Idioms and Style

Idiom is the syntactical, grammatical, or structural form peculiar to a language. Idiom is the realized structure of a language, as opposed to possible but unrealized structures that could have developed to serve the same semantic functions but did not (Wikipedia).

You will need to memorize idioms in order to spot and correct them on the GMAT.

50 Most Common Idiomatic Phrases and Constructions

  1. WHERE or WHEN vs. THAT or IN WHICH
    • WHERE – use only when you are referring to a location
    • WHEN – use only to refer to a moment in time
  2. WHO vs. WHOM
    • WHO – use when you need a subject pronoun
    • WHOM – use when you need an object pronoun
  3. NOT ONLY…BUT ALSO
  4. NO SO…AS
  5. NOT…BUT
  6. EITHER…OR
  7. NEITHER…NOR
  8. BOTH…AND
  9. MORE…THAN
  10. MORE/MOST, -ER/-EST, BETWEEN/AMONG
  11. THE MORE…THE -ER
  12. JUST AS…SO TOO
  13. AS…AS
  14. MANY/MUCH, NUMBER/AMOUNT, FEWER/LESS
  15. THE NUMBER OF VS. A NUMBER OF
    • THE NUMBER OF – use with a singular verb
    • A NUMBER OF – use with a plural verb
  16. THE SAME…AS
  17. DIFFERENT FROM
  18. SUPERIOR…TO
  19. DISTINGUISH…FROM
  20. ASSOCIATE…WITH
  21. BETWEEN…AND
  22. CONTRAST…WITH
  23. RESPONSIBILITY TO
  24. RESPONSIBLE FOR
  25. REQUIRE…TO
  26. FORBID…TO
  27. PROHIBIT…FROM
  28. WORRY ABOUT
  29. PERMIT TO
  30. TRY TO
  31. ABILITY…TO
  32. BELIEVE…TO BE
  33. CONSIDER
  34. ESTIMATE…TO BE
  35. DEFINE…AS
  36. REGARD…AS
  37. THINK OF…AS
  38. SEE…AS
  39. NATIVE
    • NATIVE OF – used as noun
    • NATIVE TO – used as adjective
  40. THAT vs. WHICH
    • THAT – use if information is required
    • WHICH – use is information is extraneous
  41. AS vs. LIKE
    • AS – use when comparing noun/verb combinations
    • LIKE – use when comparing only nouns
  42. LIKE vs. SUCH AS
    • LIKE – use when you mean “similar to”
    • SUCH AS – use when you mean “for example”
  43. FROM…TO
  44. ATTRIBUTE…TO
  45. CREDIT…WITH
  46. EACH vs. ALL OR BOTH
    • EACH – use when you want to emphasize that items are separate
    • ALL OR BOTH – use when you want to emphasize that items are together
  47. SO…THAT
  48. SO…AS TO BE
  49. HYPOTHESIS THAT
  50. TARGET…AT

Sources: Crash Course for GMAT 4th Edition

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GMAT 2019 Study Guide | Strategy

What is the GMAT?

The GMAT or Graduate Management Admissions Test is an aptitude test for applicants to  Masters of Business Administration programs. It is not an IQ test but simply a measure of your performance on standardized tests.

The GMAT Exam Structure

As of 2019, you may choose which order you wish to take the exam in.

  1. Analytical Writing Assessment (AWA)
  2. Integrated Reasoning
  3. Multiple-Choice
    1. Verbal Reasoning
    2. Quantitative Reasoning

Analytical Writing Assessment

  • Time Limit: 30 minutes
  • # of Questions: 1 question
  • Question Types: Analysis of an Argument
  • Score Range: 0-6 (in 0.5 point increments)

In this section, you must develop an essay. The essay calls on you to critique the position of the author in the argument presented. You will compose this essay on the computer screen.

Integrated Reasoning

  • Time Limit: 30 minutes
  • # of Questions: 12 questions
  • Question Types: Graphics Interpretation, Table Analysis, Multi-Source Reasoning, Two-part Analysis
  • Score Range: 1-8 (in 1 point increments)

In this section, you will be asked to evaluate information from various sources. The questions are a mix of verbal and quantitative challenges.

Multiple-Choice

Verbal Reasoning

  • Time Limit: 65 minutes
  • # of Questions: 36 questions
  • Question Types: Reading Comprehension, Critical Reasoning, Sentence Correction
  • Score Range: 6-51 (in 1 point increments)

Quantitative Reasoning

  • Time Limit: 62 minutes
  • # of Questions: 31 question
  • Question Types: Data Sufficiency, Problem Solving
  • Score Range: 6-51 (in 1 point increments)

GMAT Computer Adaptive Testing

The Quantitative and Verbal Reasoning sections of the GMAT are computer-adaptive. According to MBA.com, “the first question you receive will be of medium difficulty.

If you answer the first question correctly, the computer will usually give you a harder question. If you answer the first question incorrectly, your next question will be easier.  This process continues until you complete the section, using responses to all previously answered questions, at which point the computer will have and accurate assessment of your ability in that subject.

You will not be able to skip, return to, or change your answers to questions. This is because the computer uses your response to each question to select the next one.”

How is the GMAT scored?

The GMAT has three separate scores for each section.

Analytical Writing Assessment

  • holistically scored 0-6
  • .5 point increments

Integrated Reasoning

  • 1-8
  • 1 point incremenets
  • must answer each part correctly to get credit for the question
  • not included in Overall score

Multiple Choice

  • 0-60
  • 1 point increments
  • a two-digit number
  • the sectional subscore

Overall Score

  • subscores combined
  • three-digit number
  • 200-800
  • average score is approximately 550
  • scores on separate sections do not affect each other

What does the GMAT test look like?

The GMAT starts out with an untimed tutorial which teaches the basics of how to naviaget the test on the computer. Once you complete the tutorial, you will move into the next section of the test in the order that you have chosen.

Each section begins with timed instructions for the questions you are about to see. If you have studied the types of questions, you will not need to spend time reading these. You can save time and go ahead with your test.

GMAT Strategy for Adaptive Testing

As stated in the section above, the GMAT uses adaptive testing. According to Crash Course for the GMAT 4th Edition, as you take the test, “the computer revises its assessment of you, both by giving you questions that are more or less difficult (depending on your answers), and by adjusting its estimate of your score up and down, until has enough information to assign you a subscore for that section. Your subscores are then simply added and converted to your composite score.”

Because of this style of adaptive testing, this means that earlier questions in the test are more important to get correct than later questions. You should spend more of your time making sure that you get the first questions correctly, as getting later questions wrong won’t affect your score as much if you have already answered many of the early questions correctly. Try to spend no more than three minutes on any one question.

Techniques for taking the GMAT

Process of Elimination

While reading through the answer choices for each question, you should identify which answers are wrong in order to leave you with the correct answer and a higher probability of choosing the correct answer.

Watch the Clock

Make sure to answer every question in the section by keeping an eye on the clock. If you fail to answer every question, you will be penalized in your score. The computer takes the score calculated up to that point and reduces it by the percentage of the test unfinished.

Use Your Noteboards

You will receive a booklet of noteboards to use as scratch paper. Noteboards are laminated card stock in the size of legal paper with a graph paper grid.

Get into the habit of writing down each question with the choices A, B, C, D, E on your noteboard. Cross out each answer as you eliminate it. Once you come to your answer, you can circle or underline the correct answer to stay organized.

Integrated Reasoning Is Not Adaptive

The Integrated Reasoning section of the test is linear, and the questions do not get harder as you answer them correctly. The pacing for a linear section is different than for an adaptive section.

Pacing Guidelines

  1. Do the easiest parts of each question first.
  2. Guess and move on if you are stuck on a question for too long.

Integrated Reasoning Scores

  • Scoring is all or nothing. You must answer all questions correctly in each part to get points for the part.
  • Some questions are experimental and do not count towards your score. These questions are only there for the test-makers to evaluate.

The Calculator

The on-screen calculator is available for the Integrated Reasoning section but not for the Quantitative section. You will have to perform calculations by hand for the Quantitate section.

  • MC – memory clear key – use this key to clear any values stored in the memory
  • MR – memory recall key – use this key to recall the value you have stored using the memory store key
  • MS – memory store key – use this key to store the number currently on the screen
  • M+ – memory addition key – use this key to add the onscreen number to the value in the memory
  • Backspace – clear the last digit entered
  • CE – clear entry button – use this button to correct a mistake on a longer calculation without starting over
  • C – clear key – use this key to start a calculation over
  • sqrt – square root key – click this key after entering the number you want to take a square root of
  • % – use this key to take a percentage without entering a decimal
  • 1 /x – click this key after entering the number you want to take the reciprocal of

GMAT Question Types

Table Analysis

GMAT Integrated Reasoning Table Analysis Example Problem

  1. Sort By drop-down box: different ways to sort the data in the table
  2. Standard directions for a Table Analysis question: no need to re-read for each question
  3. Additional directions: tailored to the question with further specific information, not necessarily needed to be re-read for each question
  4. Information explaining the table: recapped information about the table
  5. Questions: You can not leave any parts blank.

Study the column headings first and then go to the statements to save time.

Graphics Interpretation

Image result for graphics interpretation gmat

  1. The chart, graph or image: could be scatter plot, bar chart, line graph, or circle
  2. Explanation of the graph or chart: what the chart represents and additional information about the measurements
  3. Questions: must answer all questions to move on, usually a drop-down box in the middle of a sentence with 3-5 answer choices

Two-Part Analysis

This section’s questions are similar to conventional math word problems with two variables. You need to pick an answer for each variable that makes some condition true.

Image result for gmat two part analysis questions

  1. The actual problem: the description of two variables, the condition that needs to be made true. Read carefully.
  2. Description of how to pick your answers: text varies slightly from problem to problem
  3. Answer choices: generally five or six answer choices, choose one for each column, possible that the same number is the answer for both columns

Most Two-Part Analysis questions use simple arithmetic. However, there are also Critical Reasoning questions interlaced.

Multi-Source Reasoning

These questions present information on tabs. It can be text, charts, graphs or a combination.

Image result for gmat multi source reasoning questions

  1. Tabs across the top left of screen: some indication of what’s on the tab, could be graphs, tables, charts, or text, be sure to check out each tab before answering questions
  2. Information for each tab: with graphs, check out the axes and look for a legend or other information to explain; with tables, check out the column headings; read all headings
  3. Basic instructions for responding: explain how you need to evaluate each statement, determine whether statements are valid inferences, evaluate statements for true or false
  4. Actual questions: pick a response for each statement or you won’t be able to advance to the next question

These questions usually come in sets with three separate questions with two usually in the statement style. You may also get multiple-choice questions with five answer choices  as part of a set.

Don’t forget to look on all tabs and get familiar with the information before responding  to questions.

Next Article >> Ten Steps to the GMAT | Sentence Corrections

Sources: Crash Course for the GMAT 4th Edition, MBA.com

 

Vintage Zodiac Wheel

Astrology Symbols | Glyphs

The following are astrology symbols (glyphs) for zodiac signs, planets, points, angles, aspects and asteroids.

Zodiac Symbols

ZODIAC SYMBOL REPRESENTS
Aries ♈️ Ram – face and horns of ram, also ovaries and woman reproductive organ
Taurus ♉️ Bull – face and horns of bull, horned torus
Gemini ♊️ Twins – companion
Cancer ♋️ Crab – connection to both material and spiritual worlds
Leo ♌️ Lion – circle-spirit and tail, cosmic snake, sperm, a lion’s head and mane
Virgo ♍️ Virgin – derived from the Greek letters ΠΑΡ, which are the first three letters of the Greek word parthenos, which means “virgin”
Libra ♎️ Scale – scales
Scorpio ♏️ Scorpion – stinger of a scorpion
Sagittarius ♐️ Archer – arrow of the centaur, aiming to higher realms
Capricorn ♑️ Sea-Goat or Mountain Goat – body and head of a goat with the tail of a fish or face and horns of goat
Aquarius ♒️ Waterbearer – ripples of water, disruption
Pisces ♓️ Fish – two fish tied together yet swimming in opposite directions

 

Planet Symbols

PLANET SYMBOL REPRESENTS
Sun halo or radiate crown of the sun
Moon a crescent or the moon in the first quarter
Mercury winged helmet and and caduceus (staff carried by Hermes in Greek mythology) of Mercury (god of commerce, luck, financial gain, etc. in Roman mythology)
Venus ♀︎ hand mirror or necklace
Mars ♂︎ shield and spear of Mars (god of war in Roman mythology)
Jupiter thunderbolt or eagle of Jupiter (god of sky and thunder, king of the gods in Roman mythology)
Saturn sickle of Saturn (leader of the Titans in Greek mythology)
Uranus ♅ or ⛢ H in symbol for discoverer’s last name (Herschel) // derived from a combination of Mars and Sun symbols
Neptune trident of Neptune (god of freshwater and the sea in Roman mythology)
Pluto PL monogram for Pluto and Percival Lowell
Earth ⊕ or ♁ a solar symbol // a stylized globus cruciger (Christian symbol of authority since the Middle Ages)
Ceres Ceres scythe (handle down) of Ceres (goddess of the Harvest)

Asteroid Symbols

ASTEROID SYMBOL REPRESENTS
Astraea Astraea symbol.svg
Ceres Ceres scythe (handle down) of Ceres (goddess of the Harvest)
Hygiea Hygiea or Hygiea a serpent coiled around Asclepius’ (god of medicine in Greek mythology) rod // two seprents coiled around the rod
Juno Juno scepter of Juno (goddess of women in Roman mythology) topped with a star
Pallas Pallas a spear or the Alchemical symbol for sulfur
Vesta Vesta fire on the hearth or altar for Vesta (goddess of the hearth in Roman mythology)

Aspect Symbols

ASPECT SYMBOL ANGLE REPRESENTS
Conjunction two or more planets in the same sign, a circle with a line implying two objects are in the same (also, the starting point of an angle)
Vigintile (Semidecile) V or SD 18°
Semisextile (Dodecile) Semisextile-symbol.svg 30° one sign apart, the intersecting lines from the inner angles of the upper half of a hexagon
Undecile U 33°
Decile D or ⊥ 36°
Novile (Nonile) N 40°
Semi-square 45° bisecting line of a right angle, also known as semiquartile and octile
Septile S 51°
Sextile Sextile-symbol.svg 60° two signs apart, intersecting lines from the inner angles of a hexagon
Quintile Q or ⬠ 72°
Binovile (Binonile) 80°
Square (Quartile) 90° three signs apart, same modality, a regular quadrilateral that represents the right angle
Biseptile 103°
Tredecile (Tridecile) D³ or ∓ 108°
Trine 120° four signs apart, same elemental triplicity, an equilateral triangle
Sesquiquadrate (Sesquisquare, Square-and-a-half, Trioctile) Sesquisquare-symbol.svg 135° glyph of the semi-square under the glyph of the square, implying the sum of them both
Biquintile Q² or bQ or ± 144°
Quincunx (Inconjunct) Quincunx-symbol.svg 150° five signs apart, intersecting lines from the inner angles of the lower half of a hexagon
Triseptile (Tridecile) 154°
Quadranovile (Quadnovile, Quadranonile) N⁴ 160°
Opposition 180° six signs apart, glyph of the conjunction plus a circle on top of its line, implying two objects are in front (opposed) of each other

Miscellaneous Astrological Symbols

 

NAME SYMBOL REPRESENTS
Ascendant Ascendant-symbol.svg (angle) rising intersection of the ecliptic with the celestial horizion at a particular moment in time, used in the construction of a horoscope/natal chart
Midheaven Midheaven-symbol.svg (angle) the point where the ecliptic crosses the local meridian, used in the construction of a horoscope/natal chart
Retrograde motion the apparent retrograde motion of a planet in an astrological chart
Chiron Chiron (centaur) stylized body of a centaur (circle is horse, K-like glyph is human)
Nessus Nessus astrological symbol.svg (centaur) stylized body of a centaur (circle is horse, N-like glyph is human)
Pholus Pholus.svg (centaur) stylized body of a centaur (circle is horse, P-like glyph is human)
Comet Comet-sym.svg general symbol for comet
Eris Eris or Eris or Eris or Erisor Eris (dwarf planet) eye of providence; hand of eris; apple of discord; used in Poland by astrology software Urania; based on symbols for Pluto, Mars, and Venus, used in Time Passages
Haumea Haumea (dwarf planet) Hawaiian petroglyphs for woman and birthchild
Makemake Makemake (dwarf planet) engraved face of the Rapa Nui god Makemake
Proserpina Astrological symbol for the hypothetical planet Proserpina.svg (hypothetical planet)
Transpluto Astrological symbol for the hypothetical planet Transpluto.svg (hypothetical planet)
Lot of fortune (lot) glyph for planet Earth rotated 45 degrees
Black Moon Lilith Lilith symbol.svg (lunar apogee) position of the mean lunar apogee as measured from the geocenter
True or Osculating Black Moon Lilith True Black Moon Lilith.svg (lunar apogee) variant used for the calculated (as opposed to mean) position
White Moon Selena Astrological symbol for White Moon Selena.svg (lunar apogee) symbolic opposite of Black Moon Lilith
True Light Moon Arta or True White Moon Astrological symbol for True Light Moon Arta.svg (lunar apogee) using True Black Moon Lilith instead of the Black Moon Lilith
Ascending Node (lunar node) alternately known as Dragon’s head, most commonly referred to simply as the nodal axis, lunar nodes, or moon’s nodes
Descending Node (lunar node) alternately known as Dragon’s tail, most commonly referred to simply as the nodal axis, lunar nodes, or moon’s nodes
Ixion Ixion (plutino) wheel to which Zeus bound Ixion as a punishment in Tartarus, according to Greek mythology
Typhon Typhon (scattered disk object) hurricane, as Typhon was a monster that could create hurricanes with his wings in Greek mythology
Quaoar Quaoar (small body) sharp rock art of the Tongva people, letter Q and canoe
Sedna Sedna (small body) Inuktitut syllabics for ‘sa’ and ‘n’, resembles the shape of a marine animal leaping from water in allusion to the myth of Sedna (the Inuit sea goddess)
Cardinal Sulphur.svg (zodiacal modality)
Fixed 🜔 (zodiacal modality)
Mutable (zodiacal modality)

Sources: Wikipedia, Astrolibrary

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